Without the coastal sandbar, there is too much water pressure and volume transport from the open Mediterranean Sea to form a dry crossing at Kedua under wind stress of 28 m/s. Our study location is on the right side of the figure (solid rectangle: 30.8°–31.2° North, 32.2°–32.6° East), from Sethrum to a point between Pelusium and Magdolum, where the Lake of Tanis and the Pelusiac branch of the Nile come together. We executed the ROMS model on the bluefire supercomputer at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, using 1 node with 32 processors. 1. Conceived and designed the experiments: CD WH. Since the wind stress is only from the East and the Coriolis effect is small, this v-current must be caused by pressure gradient forces within the gap. . The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation. Another word for set down. Bluefire support staff consider performance variations of less than 10% to be statistically insignificant unless they are observed over a large number of runs. Scientific literature from the 19th century contains a description of a wind setdown event that occurred in the eastern Nile delta. Voltzinger & Androsov [4] also used a wind speed that steadily ramps up to the maximum value, then acts for 12 hours. Created the Ballah Lakes using Manfred Bietak's map of East Delta and North Sinai (, Restored the Pelusiac branch of the Nile from Bubastis to Daphnae. (1)Assume the average flow velocity is 0.3 m/s in spring:(2)The modeled Pelusiac channel is 260 m wide (3 grid cells) and 3 m deep in the center. Anything beyond that will be dead power lines. The wind-driven components have been compared favorably with observations of storm surge [20]. The similar shape of the two curves confirms that the currents within the gap are pressure-driven, except for the first 6 hours of 9(a) when wind stress drives the current instead. Based on the descriptions of Herodotus, James Rennell published a map of the Nile Delta region [8] during the Greek classical period (shown here in Figure 2). From about 11:00 to 12:00 hours, the Gilbana site retains a stream of water about 200 m wide along the northern shore. This map is outlined as a solid rectangle in Figure 2. The downestuary winds amplified the two-layer flows, whereas the upestuary wind weakened the two-layer flows or even reversed them. We analyze the gap where the paleolagoon opens to the North at Kedua. Under the stronger East wind of T13, the cape at Pelusium acts as a protective shield for the Kedua Gap, deflecting the Mediterranean inflow and allowing the lagoon there to blow completely dry. We chose the velocity of our modeled wind to be 28 m/s (100 km/h) at 10 m above the surface for the Lake of Tanis case study. Sustained winds of … Instead of blatantly rejecting biblical history, some secularists are now explaining miracles as complex natural events. [15] and Shchepetkin & McWilliams [16]. To test this mechanism, we created an idealized oxbow lake and applied a uniform easterly wind of 28 m/s. The time series is taken midway between point B and Kedua (at ‘x’ in Figure 8). (Return  to the corrected sentence.). When compared with T1, the shorter Kedua Gap advances the opening time by 12 minutes and increases the crossing time by 6 minutes. We used a step function for Lake of Tanis instead of a ramp function because we are interested in the transient behavior and the timing of this event. In experiment R4 the reef becomes dry at 2 m below sea level at 10 hours, and remains dry until the wind ceases at 24 hours. Roman Jewish historian Josephus Flavius speculated that the parting of the Red Sea “might be of God’s will or of natural origin. ROMS implements the primitive equations with a free sea surface and a terrain-following s-coordinate in the vertical dimension. Wind setdown is the drop in water level caused by wind stress acting on the surface of a body of water for an extended period of time. The tainted water eventually killed the frogs, causing lice and flies to run rampant, which lead to a number of animal diseases (including African horse sickness) and an outbreak of boils (fancy glanders). The second set of experiments reports on a new study location. Others, building on Marr’s domino theory, argue that the plagues were triggered by the eruption of the Greek island of Santorini, causing a string of disasters such as those that occurred at Lake Nyos, Cameroon, in 1986. For short, the whole phenomenon is often denoted as wave setup, including both increase and decrease of mean elevation. "This study analyzes the two effects acting on an enclosed body of water, and compares them with observations in order to calibrate the parameters of a … Slate relies on advertising to support our journalism. Download Setdown sounds ... 1,060 stock sound clips starting at $2. This era contains considerable historical interest, and provides the opportunity to use archaeological and geological studies of the “Ways of Horus” East of the Suez Canal [6]. This choice of direction restricts the hydrodynamic possibilities to those bodies of water near Sinai that have a long East-West extent. Here we use a single notch to demonstrate how variations in the reef depth may delay the crossing. They performed His signs among them, and wonders in the land of Ham . But not all the explanations of the Passover story are motivated by such ardent secularism. Initially the draining passage from the upwind basin is the full 10 km wide; when the water level drops below 2 m, the channel becomes only 1 km wide. Next morning on going out I found that Lake Menzaleh, which is situated on the west side of the [Suez] Canal, had totally disappeared, the effect of the high wind on the shallow water having actually driven it away beyond the horizon, and the natives were walking about on the mud where the day before the fishing-boats, now aground, had been floating. Voltzinger & Androsov [4] used a 3-dimensional (3-D) model to simulate the reef at 29.88° N in the Gulf of Suez. Marr believes the plagues were a series of natural disasters and diseases triggered by a bloom of water-borne organisms called dinoflagellates. For thousands of years, skeptics and believers alike have debated whether the events described in the Passover story—the parting of the Red Sea, the 10 plagues, and the burning bush—actually took place. Prior to 281.107, Wind Turbines are affected by electrical storms. The let-down effect can also happen with flare-ups of asthma, autoimmune diseases (like lupus and Crohn's disease), digestive problems and skin conditions (such as … Copyright: © 2010 Drews, Han. offshore generated wind setdown, a lowering of the water level, which is the opposite of storm surge. [37] found that Cd increases as surface winds approach 33 m/s, then decreases thereafter. At the modeled grid resolution (86 m) it is not possible to model the river channel more accurately. here. The wind stress is constant from 0 to 12 hours, producing dry ground with no current in this particular grid cell after 6 hours. As discussed in section 1.2, an angular bend of water occurs in our domain of interest (solid rectangle on the right side of Figure 2), and this angle is important for generating the presence of water on both sides of the land bridge. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, Mr. M. Rooke: I should like to ask the present depth of Lake Menzahleh [sic] near Port Said? Wind setdown occurs in shallow coastal areas when strong winds blow offshore. A traversable dry gap in the waters opens here at 9:36 hours, where it appears feasible for a number of people to make their way across the exposed mud flats. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481.g007. A series of experiments were performed using the 3-D ROMS for the idealized Suez basin with an underwater reef (Figure 1), as proposed by Nof & Paldor [2]. The northern boundary of the standard ROMS domain is at 31.5° North latitude, and this limit provides a model grid that is computationally manageable. e12481. The archaeological sites here (Hebua, Tell el-Borg) were above sea level and occupied during this historical period [9], [6]. Wind turbines line the crest of a hill in Canada. The water surface is initially at sea level except for the Pelusiac branch West (upstream) of Daphnae. Wind setdown is the drop in water level caused by wind stress acting on the surface of a body of water for an extended period of time. The proposed reef is at 29.88° N; it extends about 10 km under the Gulf of Suez from a point 3 km Southeast of Adabiya across to Uyun Musa on the eastern shore (see Figure 1 for an idealized map of Suez). Tulloch: It is only about 5 feet or 6 feet. T12 and T13 demonstrate that the Kedua Gap crossing has a small but important tolerance to variations in the reconstructed topography. This feature is the Pelusium Line, a tectonic feature [14]. Note that the plots of surface difference (black dotted line) and current in Figure 9 are correlated, except for the first 6 hours of Figure 9(a). Figure 4 shows the modified geography. 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