Canada thistle spreads both by seeds and by budding from underground roots. It stores food energy in its extensive root system both to survive the winter and to fuel the plant's reproductive drive the following season. It is adapted to a wide range of soil conditions, and spreads vigorously by wind-borne seeds and by way of its extensive, creeping root system. They ate anything, but by far, they preferred Nyjer. ) It differs from other species in the same genus given its dioecious flowers. Canada Thistle reproduces by seeds and roots. Weeds of Canada and the Northern United States. Issued in furtherance of MSU Extension work, acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Canada thistle plants can also produce a lot of seed that can be distributed long distances by wind, water, and animals. 4. The seed weevil Rhinocyllus conicus was introduced from Eurasia to control musk thistle by reducing seed production. Canada thistle is difficult to control once it is established on a site. Two years before confederation, legislation required farmers to cut the weed 1. Prefers perennial and no-till cropping systems and rangelands. Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) is a persistent perennial weed that causes significant crop yield losses. Exclusion and sanitation: Avoid spreading thistle roots, shoots, and seeds by implements such as mowers between fields. Introduced to North America, Argentina, Chile, Iceland, Greenland, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand (USDA-ARS 2016Footnote 2). The seeds of this broadleaf perennial can go dormant for up to 20 years 2, but only about 10% of Canada thistle is spread through seed 1. NebGuide: Canada thistle (CIAR4) OK-OSU Extension-Thistles and their Identification (CIAR4) Ohio State University: Identifying noxious weeds (CIAR4) Purdue University: Control practices for Canada thistle (CIAR4) The Nature Conservancy: Wildland Weeds Management & Research Program (CIAR4) UC Davis, IPM: abstract & images (CIAR4) This information is for educational purposes only. FGIS 9180.16 - Inspection of Export Lots of Soybeans for Ragweed Seeds (pdf) 07/22/1999 FMD-PPMAB. Pammel assumed the lack of seed was due to Canada thistle being poorly adapted to the environment of the western Corn Belt. The plant reproduces by seeds and dense patches of shoots emerge from creeping roots. Canada thistle has an extensive underground root system that may penetrate the soil to a depth of 10 feet or more and grow laterally 12 to 15 feet per year. It is scattered throughout California to about 5900 feet (1800 m). Canada thistle plant beginning to elongate in spring. Repeated tillage at 7 to 28 day intervals for up to 4 years can be effective on infestations of Canada thistle. Canada thistle overwinters in the rosette growth stage. Canada thistle inhabits … Some livestock have been known to graze on Canada thistle at different life stages (see Chapter 5). Compare an artichoke and a thistle, and notice that they are very similar, except in size. Nodding thistle achenes have a smooth, varnish-like surface with transverse markings, while the achenes of Canada thistle are fibrous and woody with thin furrows and no transverse lines. However, seeds have been found to germinate from 3-inch soil depths. Application timing and effectiveness: Most susceptible to herbicides between the bud and flower stages of Canada thistle. Nodding thistle achenes have a similar size, shape and colour as Canada thistle. Royer, F. and Dickinson, R. 1999. It is considered “noxious” in 43 states and is found on every continent except Antarctica. Seed production allows for local and long distance reproduction. The late-season flowers produce seeds with little damage from the weevil, … Canada thistle is a creeping perennial that reproduces from vegetative buds in its root system and from seed. Dispersal Mechanisms: Creeping roots can be moved from field to field on tillage equipment. Ottawa, ON. Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.) Canada thistle is a non-native perennial forb that reproduces/spreads from seed and rhizomes. Planting date: Most likely will not affect Canada thistle infestations. Each seed has an attached pappus which allows for wind dispersal. It also produces deep creeping rhizomes that allow it to survive below norm… Seed production averages 1,500 seeds per plant, but these remain viable for only a few years (Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Fisheries 2002Footnote 5). It is difficult to control because its extensive root system allows it to recover from control attempts. Planting competitive crops, such as alfalfa and forage … Please refer to E-434, "MSU Weed Control Guide for Field Crops," for herbicide recommendations. Repeated mowing to weaken stems and prevent seeding is also effective in low level infestations. Crop rotation: Canada thistle populations have been shown to be reduced by the use of a summer annual cover crop such as sudangrass (See the cover crop chapter in IWM: Fine Tuning the System). Canada thistle requires a multi-year, integrated control strategy. 1975. The species spreads by creeping roots which in turn causes Canada thistle to often form dense patches. Canada thistle can reproduce by seed and has male and female flowers on separate plants. Specific Controls Mode(s) of Reproduction: Most local reproduction is from creeping roots. Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) is a perennial that has plagued farmers in America since European settlement, and is a Noxious Weed in Pennsylvania. Darbyshire, S. J. Canada thistle was introduced from Europe and is one of the most feared weeds in the United States. Canada thistle invades natural areas such as prairies, savannas, open areas in forests, and dunes if some degree of disturbance already exists. When buried at greater depths (7-inches or more) and left undisturbed seeds have been found to be viable for up to 30 years. Canadian: Occurs in all provinces and territories except NU (Brouillet et al. Other agents have been studied, but eliminated for various reasons. Emerges in spring and flowers when days are the longest. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 55: 1033-1048. Seeds of Canada thistle were likely introduced as a contaminant of crop seed in the late 18th century (Moore 1975Footnote 4). The plan must include proper crop rotation. Longevity: Low to moderate persistence - when buried 1 to 3-inches in the soil 45 to 60% of seed germinates the first year and less than 1% survives after 3 to 5 years. Plants are either male or female (dioecious) so cross pollination is necessary for seed production. Insect biocontrol agents have been released on both musk thistle and Canada thistle with limited success. Consequently, individual plants (and in some instances entire patches) may be seedless. In fact, Canada thistle is older than Canada itself. Canada Thistle produces flowers from about June until August. Canada Thistle or Creeping Thistle (Cirsium arvense) Aster Family / Thistle SubfamilyBy Thomas J. Elpel with additions by Pamela G. Sherman About Canada Thistle: Thistles belong to the Thistle Subfamily of the Aster Family, along with artichokes. Thistle heads: Bull (L), Canada (R). Dormancy: Though most seed is capable of germinating upon dispersal in the fall it enters secondary dormancy during the winter months. Moderate shoot densities have been shown to reduce spring wheat yield and alfalfa seed yield by up to 50%. Guide to the Weeds in British Columbia, [2016, May 30]. It was likely one of the first weeds introduced by North American settlers in the 1600s as a contaminant in seeds. Executive Office Montana Weed Control Association, Inc. PO Box 315, Twin Bridges, MT 59754 (406) 684-5590 | (888) 664-4153 (fax) Emergence: Seedlings produced from seeds emerge from soil depths of 1/4- to 1/2-inch. Moore, R. J. One treatment or a combination of treatments may need to be used to control populations depending on the site. 2003. It was introduced to North America in the 1600s, probably in agricultural seed shipments and is now widespread throughout the United States and Canada. 2. A typical seedling in the 2-leaf stage, 14 days after emergence, will have a root that is 15 cm (6 in.) The 4-H Name and Emblem have special protections from Congress, protected by code 18 USC 707. Plants can spread vegetatively and over long distances by its seed. 3. Seed production averages 1,500 seeds per plant, but these remain viable for only a few years (Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Fisheries 2002Footnote 5). Frequently tilling may also reduce populations if continued for a few years. long, with as … Avoid crops with poor competitive ability and no in-crop herbicide options (e.g., lentils, field peas). Don't let it get established! Perennial. Seed production requires male and female plants to grow in the same area because Canada thistle is dioecious. The dioecious character of Canada thistle was first reported in … Worldwide: Native to most of Europe and temperate Asia to as far south as India and Nepal. Seeds are dark brown and only 1/8 inch long. For interest's sake, I found some Canada Thistle seed and placed it alongside Nyjer. C. thistle invading a disturbed area from perennial rootstocks. It also invades wet areas with fluctuating water levels such as streambanks, sedge meadows, and wet prairies. Introduced into the United States around 1750. Seed can remain viable in soil up to 20 years, and deep burial promotes survival longevity. Canada thistle is a perennial weed that has soft green, deeply lobed, spear-like leaves and these leaves have sharp barbs on them. Its deep roots are the real issue. a seed-head fly found in Canada and the United States) can be responsible for 20 to 80% seed predation. Canada thistle is a prohibited weed in certified seed production, so check your fields regularly and keep it out. The immature achenes of nodding thistle have filamentous pappus hairs and Canada thistle has plumose hairs. MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer. Seedlings produced from seeds emerge from soil depths of 1/4- to 1/2-inch. 13. Wind and moving water can distribute seeds, but seeds often stay within a few meters of the parent plant. Plants die after the first killing frost. The majority of Canada thistle stems originate from vegetative rootstocks rather than seed, producing a rosette in the spring. Birds pictured: One Pine Siskin and two American Goldfinches, a heap of Common Redpolls (We fed about 70 of these birds for a month in 2013. The key to control is recognizing the problem and being persistent with control measures. Production Range: Seed production ranges from 1,500 to 5,300 seeds per plant. The California Crop Improvement Association (CCIA) charged with certifying seed fields states the following: “We have a zero tolerance for prohibited weeds in any class of certified fields. Canada thistle is a non-native perennial forb that reproduces/spreads from seed and rhizomes. Use tested seed when planting row middles to minimize the risk of contamination with weed seeds (Figure 2). Physical description Canada thistle is a perennial that spreads by seed and an underground system of vertical and horizontal roots. Flower Seed Head. Infests crops including wheat, corn, peas, beans, sugar beets and potatoes, as well as pastures and rangelands (Moore 1975Footnote 4). The top peg is thicker and wider in nodding thistle. Roots are abundant, deep and creeping, forming a dense patch much the same as bindweed. 2002. Emerges in spring and flowers when days are the longest. The Canada thistle is part of the Cirsium genus, in the subtribe Carduinae, trube Cardueae and family Astreracae. The stems are hairy. Life Cycle: Perennial. 2016Footnote 1). Seed may be transported by water, animals, farm equipment and other vehicles, and in contaminated crop seed. Canada thistle grows over a wide range of habitats and elevations, preferring rich loam soils (Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Fisheries 2002Footnote 5). Michigan State University Extension programs and materials are open to all without regard to race, color, national origin, gender, gender identity, religion, age, height, weight, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, marital status, family status or veteran status. FGIS 9180.17 - Inspection of Export Wheat Lots for Canadian Thistle Seed (pdf) 01/04/2011 FMD-PPMAB. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN), [2016, May 30]. Inventory of Canadian Agricultural Weeds. MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer, committed to achieving excellence through a diverse workforce and inclusive culture that encourages all people to reach their full potential. Generally, new shoots begin to form in January. Sequential herbicide applications may be necessary for control. It is found throughout the northern half of the United States and southern Canada. Seeds of Canada thistle were likely introduced as a contaminant of crop seed in the late 18th century (Moore 1975Footnote 4). VASCAN, the database vascular plants of Canada, [2016, May 30]. Canada thistle, a perennial broadleaf plant, is found in most of the western states except for southern Sierra Nevada, the Sonoran and Mojave deserts, and the Channel Islands. It reproduces through both seed and root regeneration, but the latter is the most successful. Persistence is imperative so the weed is continually stressed, forcing it to exhaust root nutrient stores and eventually die.Canada thistle (Cir… clods can stimulate seed germination of Canada thistle. Canada thistle is diecious, which means male and female flowers occur on separate plants. Once a population of Canada thistle takes root, it can be really hard to conquer. Herbaceous perennial, 2-6.5’ tall with upright, grooved stems that branch near the top of the plant. Canada Thistle Despite its common name, this invasive thistle is not native to Canada, but actually native throughout Europe and Northern Asia. The weevils can reduce seed production by nearly 80 percent, but they are attracted more to early-blooming than late-blooming flowers. Flowers are pink, bristly, 1/2 inch long and wide. Plants are either male or female (dioecious) so cross pollination is necessary for seed production. Predation/grazing: When present Orellia ruficauda (i.e. Canada thistle grows over a wide range of habitats and elevations, preferring rich loam soils (Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Fisheries 2002Footnote 5). The biology of Canadian weeds. Adventitious shoots (vegetative propagules) from creeping roots can come up from greater depths. If allowed to go to flower, the flower is a purple pom-pom shape that will be produced in clusters at the top of the plant. The University of Alberta Press/Lone Pine Publishing, Edmonton, Alberta. Canada thistle is native to Europe. Canada thistle can produce up to 1,500 seeds per flowering shoot. Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Fisheries. Elongate achene; straight to slightly curved, tapering at the base and truncate at the top, Achene fibrous and woody texture, thin longitudinal furrows can be seen with magnification, Narrow pale collar at the top of the achene, Immature achenes can have plumose pappus hairs. If you bring hay on-farm, use a reliable source. Primary Noxious, Class 2 in the Canadian Weed Seeds Order, 2016 under the Seeds Act. It can reproduce from small stem fragments or seeds. Brouillet, L., Coursol, F., Favreau, M. and Anions, M. 2016. In Indiana, Canada thistle normally initiates growth in spring, reaches the flower-bud stage the first week in June, and full flower about the third week of June. A dense patch of thistle may need to be grazed more than once during the summer to prevent seed set. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Research Branch. Tillage: Tillage, mowing and other forms of mechanical control have been deemed ineffective for control. Seeds mature rapidly and are able to germinate within eight to 10 days after pollination. Plants die after the first killing frost. 1. It it also different from other native North American species given its large roots and … Canada thistle is a cool season perennial which spreads by seed and vegetatively by creeping roots. Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences. Introduced into the United States around 1750. Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.). Male and female flowers are produced on separate plants. Control Canada thistle in roadsides, field roads, and fencerows. Not Your Average Thistle The key to Canada thistle's weediness is its root system. Jeffrey W. Dwyer, Director, MSU Extension, East Lansing, MI 48824. Combining control methods is the best form of Canada thistle management. Cultivated fields, old fields, gardens, lawns, pastures, fence lines, shores, thickets, open forests, roadsides, railway lines and other disturbed areas (Darbyshire 2003Footnote 3). Plant produce viable seeds 8 to 10 days after flower emergence with an average plant producing 1500 seeds. Larvae develop in the flower head and consume the seed as it develops. Because of its contribution to the persistence of the weed, Canada thistle's extensive root system must be the target of an effective control program. Fields with extensive seed germination should be retilled or treated with herbicide within 40 days ater the seeds germinate to prevent deep root development. So, if you disturb the soil and break the rhizomes into pieces, they simply develop into new plants. However, seeds have been found to germinate from 3 … It also produces deep creeping rhizomes that allow it to survive below normal tillage depths (Royer and Dickinson 1999Footnote 6). USDA-ARS 2016. This could include tillage, patch mowing, in-crop herbicides, and pre-harvest and post- harvest herbicides. Tillage can increase the problem by spreading vegetative propagules. Flowering occurs late spring into summer in response to 14-hour days and are pink to purple in color. FGIS 9180.18 - Special Quality Factor Information for Wheat and Malting Barley Shipments to the European Union (pdf) 04/21/2003 FMD-PPMAB Its root system can extend more than fifteen feet out and six feet down from the plant, making management difficult. Ater 40 days, the developed roots could survive disking or some herbicide treatments. Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. Canada thistle flower bud (E. Burns, NDSU) The key to using crop rotations to manage Canada thistle is growing crops with different life cycles than the weed. A map showing the distribution of Canada thistle in Iowa in 1898 indicated isolated infestations in only 25 counties. Reference to commercial products or trade names does not imply endorsement by MSU Extension or bias against those not mentioned. Seed production is usually completed in early July. Flowering occurs late spring into summer in response to 14-hour days and are pink to purple in color.
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