Broadly speaking, the integumentary system is composed of skin and its appendages, subcutaneous tissue, deep fascia, mucocutaneous junctions, and breasts. This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, examines the anatomy and physiology of skin, also termed the integumentary system. Ceruminous glands produce a waxy secretion known as cerumen to protect the ear canals and lubricate the eardrum. Authors. Your skin is a vital part of your life and appearance (a–d). The structure of hair can be broken down into 3 major parts: the follicle, root, and shaft. The sympathetic nervous system is continuously monitoring body temperature and initiating appropriate motor responses. PLAY. Interspersed among the keratinocytes of this layer is a type of dendritic cell called the Langerhans cell, which functions as a macrophage by engulfing bacteria, foreign particles, and damaged cells that occur in this layer. Skin also has accessory structures or appendages including the hair, nails and glands. Brief overview of the major structures and functions of the Integumentary System . Well, being the largest organ in the human body, skin anatomy is certainly an important part of the integumentary system. This dry, dead layer helps prevent the penetration of microbes and the dehydration of underlying tissues, and provides a mechanical protection against abrasion for the more delicate, underlying layers. With a prolonged reduction in oxygen levels, dark red deoxyhemoglobin becomes dominant in the blood, making the skin appear blue, a condition referred to as cyanosis (kyanos is the Greek word for “blue”). The integumentary system consists of the skin and accessory structures, such as hair, nails, and glands. There are 2 major types of sudoriferous glands: eccrine sweat glands and apocrine sweat glands. Langerhans cells are the third most common cells in the epidermis and make up just over 1% of all epidermal cells. Vasoconstriction permits the skin to cool while blood stays in the body’s core to maintain heat and circulation in the vital organs. But which of them are first to spring to your mind? The outermost layer of skin is the stratum corneum. In this case also the Integumen System is surrounded by a system called the organ system found in … Created by. The integument as anorgan, and is an alternative name forskin. A couple of the more noticeable disorders, albinism and vitiligo, affect the appearance of the skin and its accessory organs. Save. Integumentary System Labeling. Key Concepts: Terms in this set (36) Meissner's corpuscle . In order to do these things, the integumentary system works with all the other systems of your body, each of which has a role to play in maintaining the internal c… Thus, the amount of melanin present in our skin is dependent on a balance between available sunlight and folic acid destruction, and protection from UV radiation and vitamin D production. The eponychium helps to seal the edges of the nail to prevent infection of the underlying tissues. Hemoglobin is another pigment most noticeable in people with little melanin. Elastin fibers provide some elasticity to the skin, enabling movement. The dermis is mostly made of dense irregular connective tissue along with nervous tissue, blood, and blood vessels. The stratum lucidum is a smooth, seemingly translucent layer of the epidermis located just above the stratum granulosum and below the stratum corneum. The nail body is the visible external portion of the nail. An appreciation for the anatomy and physiology of the integumentary system and the skin’s role in healing is needed to understand wound closure, complete with optimal aesthetics and function. Melanin occurs in two primary forms. Melanocytes produce the pigment melanin to protect the skin from ultraviolet radiation and sunburn. The first thing a clinician sees is the skin, and so the examination of the skin should be part of any thorough physical examination. The ducts of apocrine sweat glands extend into the follicles of hairs so that the sweat produced by these glands exits the body along the surface of the hair shaft. Underlying the papillary layer is the much thicker reticular layer, composed of dense, irregular connective tissue. to explore the tissue sample in greater detail. Vitamin D3 is converted in the kidneys into calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D. When our skin is not exposed to sufficient amounts of sunlight, we can develop vitamin D deficiency, potentially leading to serious health concerns. Integumentary System DRAFT. Hemoglobin is the red pigment found in red blood cells, but can be seen through the layers of the skin as a light red or pink color. The keratinocytes that compose the stratum lucidum are dead and flattened (see Figure 5.5). Unsubscribe at any time. The dermis is made of two layers of connective tissue that compose an interconnected mesh of elastin and collagenous fibers, produced by fibroblasts (Figure 5.7). Minor mechanical damage from rough or sharp objects is mostly absorbed by the skin before it can damage the underlying tissues. The integumentary system’s main organ is the skin. The papillary layer is the superficial layer of the dermis that borders on the epidermis. The reticular layer is made of dense irregular connective tissue that contains many tough collagen and stretchy elastin fibers running in all directions to provide strength and elasticity to the skin. The nail root is the portion of the nail found under the surface of the skin. Unstained epidermis samples do not exhibit this characteristic appearance. A sudden drop in oxygenation can affect skin color, causing the skin to initially turn ashen (white). Online. This layer is well vascularized and has a rich sensory and sympathetic nerve supply. The keratinocytes in the stratum granulosum are so far removed from the dermis that they begin to die from lack of nutrients. All layers of the epidermis have cells called keratinocytes. Skin. Not only is this a problem for the individuals affected, but it also has a severe impact on our healthcare system. Dermis. The integumentary system consists of the skin, hair, nails, the subcutaneous tissue below the skin,and assorted glands.The most obvious function of the integumentary system is the protection that the skin gives to underlying tissues.
2020 integumentary system structure